Also known as Defensive Urban Design, this form of architecture has been around for decades. As more applications are utilized in our modern day society, many feel that the design element, and those responsible for commissioning them have gone too far. Primarily used for property protection and crime prevention, certain design elements target humans and even animals, subliminally removing them from areas with discreet design maneuvers. More often than not, they go unnoticed and therefore unchallenged.
However, a movement against these hostile architectural elements is afoot across the globe with many viewpoints, both pro and con. Click here to read more on this controversial subject.